Willie Brown, in full Willie Lewis Brown, Jr. is an American politician who was the first African American speaker of the California State Assembly, the longest-serving speaker of that body (1980–95), and mayor of San Francisco (1996–2004).
Brown was born into poverty in rural Texas and moved to San Francisco after graduating from high school. In 1955 he received a bachelor’s degree in liberal studies from San Francisco State College (now San Francisco State University), and three years later he earned a law degree from the University of California Hastings College of the Law (1958). Brown established a private legal practice and became active in politics. In 1964 he won election to the California State Assembly. Appointed to chair the Legislative Representation Committee, he used the post to enhance his position in the legislature and to facilitate his rise to power. In 1969 he became the Democratic Party whip, and in 1974 he made an unsuccessful bid to become speaker of the State Assembly. In 1980, winning the support of 28 Republicans and 23 Democrats, he was elected speaker, a post he held until 1995.
A flamboyant figure, Brown was a prime target of the successful effort in 1990 in California to limit state legislators to three terms. Forced to retire from the State Assembly, he was elected mayor of San Francisco in 1995 and was reelected in 1999. After leaving office in 2004, Brown briefly cohosted (2006) a radio talk show and established an institute on public service and politics.