The Azusa Street Revival, beginning in the spring of 1906, largely spawned the worldwide Pentecostal movement. It commenced in a former African Methodist Episcopal church building located at 312 Azusa Street in Los Angeles, California. The primary leader was evangelist William J. Seymour, who came to Los Angeles from Mississippi to preach the apostolic faith, a teaching that combined the baptism of the Holy Spirit with speaking … Continue reading AZUSA STREET REVIVAL (1906-1909)


In July 1906, the U.S. Army stationed three companies of the all-black Twenty-Fifth Infantry at Fort Brown, Texas, adjacent to Brownsville.  In recent years, southern Texas and the border region had seen periodic disturbances between American soldiers and local Chicanos who resented the military’s presence.  Soon after their arrival, black soldiers began complaining of police harassment and civilian discrimination. On the night of August 13, … Continue reading BROWNSVILLE AFFRAY, 1906

Houston Mutiny of 1917

By the time the U.S. entered World War I, black soldiers and white Texas civilians had a history of hostile relations dating back more than fifty years.  At Camp Logan, men with the Third Battalion of the Twenty-fourth U.S. Infantry Regiment faced increasing harassment from Houston authorities.  On August 23, 1917, a rumor reached the camp that Corporal Charles Baltimore had been killed for interfering with the detention and interrogation … Continue reading Houston Mutiny of 1917